GRAND SLAM TENNIS ARCHIVE
GRAND SLAM TENNIS STATISTICS


OTHER STATISTICS PAGES

No. 1 DO THE TOP MALE PLAYERS HAVE EASIER MATCHES IN THE FIRST WEEK OF GRAND SLAMS THAN THEY DID IN THE PAST?

No. 2 HOW WELL DO HOME PLAYERS PERFORM IN THEIR GRAND SLAM EVENTS?

No. 3 WHAT WAS THE CHALLENGE ROUND?

No. 4 WHO LOST IN GRAND SLAM FINALS?

No. 5 WHAT ARE THE MEN'S SINGLES GRAND SLAM RECORDS?

No. 6 WHAT IS A TRIPLE BAGEL?

No. 7 WHAT ARE QUALIFIERS, LUCKY LOSERS AND WILD CARDS?

No. 8 WHO LOST IN GRAND SLAM SEMI FINALS?

No. 9 WHICH GREAT HAD THE BEST RECORD AGAINST OTHER GREATS?

No. 10 WHAT IS SEEDING?

No. 11 WHO WERE THE MOST AND LEAST DOMINANT CHAMPIONS?

No. 12 WHO WERE THE MOST SUCCESSFUL TENNIS FAMILIES?

No. 13 WHAT IS A DEFAULT?

No. 14 WHAT NATIONALITY ARE GRAND AND PRO SLAM CHAMPIONS?

No. 15 WHAT IS A RETIREMENT?


In the sixteenth article of the series, the results on this website, displayed as statistics, answer the question:

WHO WERE THE MOST SUCCESSFUL CHAMPIONS ON EACH SURFACE?

Tennis is played on a variety of different surfaces. Tennis' original name was lawn tennis, as it was originally played on grass courts. It wasn't long before clay became a popular surface in places where maintaining good grass courts in unsuitable climates proved very difficult. Also, from quite early on, tennis was played indoors. Often the indoor surface was wooden boards, which were very fast. Indoor events were often called 'covered court' championships. Before the Second World War hard courts were rare apart from in California, U. S. A. The first big hard court event was the Pacific Southwest championships, held on cement courts in Los Angeles, which began in 1927. The 1939 U. S. Pro championships at Beverly Hills were also held on cement courts. The long rallies on the concrete surface caused Dick Skeen to default his semi final due to badly blistered feet. After the war different types of hard court surfaces began to be laid in significant numbers. As open tennis arrived the sorts of hard court surfaces that are played on today began to appear. However, as late as 1974, three of the four Grand Slams were still held on grass. In 1975 the U. S. switched to clay. This much slower surface didn't suit everyone that visited the event and hard courts were laid at the new venue of Flushing Meadow in 1978, though clay has remained popular elsewhere to this day. By 1978 grass was rarely used in U. S. A. The Australian Open switched from grass to hard when they moved to Melbourne Park in 1988. By the time the ATP tour began in 1990, the grass court season had dwindled to a month between the end of the French and the end of Wimbledon. Indoor tournaments have proved popular in the open era, but carpet has replaced wood. Wimbledon (grass) and the French (clay) have not altered their court surface.

Although Rod Laver won the Grand Slam in 1969 against all the best players around at the time, he did not win a Grand Slam title on hard courts, as there were none held on that surface at that time. Jimmy Connors was the first man to win Grand Slam titles on hard, clay and grass. He achieved that at the U. S. Open in 1978 the first time it was played on a hard court, having previously won the event on grass and clay, as well as Wimbledon and the Australian on grass. Mats Wilander then won on all three surfaces a decade later when he won the Australian Open the first time it was held on a hard court (he had previously won the event twice when it was held on grass as well as the French twice on clay). In 1999 Andre Agassi became the first man to win the four Grand Slams on three surfaces. A decade later Roger Federer and Rafael Nadal equalled Agassi's feat, followed soon after by Novak Djokovic.

The pro game was held on a variety of different surfaces. In order to win the World Championship Series, a player would have to work out a way to win in the most difficult conditions imaginable. Matches in the series were often played indoors on a canvas court that was transported from venue to venue. Sometimes the lighting was poor or there wasn't enough room behind the baseline. Occasionally the roof would leak water onto the court. The canvas court sometimes produced irregular bounces or occasionally was dangerous to move around on. Often the players would finish their match late and have to drive through the night to get to the next venue, where they would play the following evening. This would happen for days on end. Therefore Bill Tilden, H. Ellsworth Vines, J. Donald Budge, Bobby Riggs, Jack Kramer, Pancho Gonzales and Ken Rosewall should receive special recognition for becoming pro champion by winning the World Championship Series. The pro slams were held on a variety of different surfaces. H. Ellsworth Vines won pro slam titles on hard, clay and indoors. J. Donald Budge also won pro slams on three surfaces (indoors, clay and grass). Ken Rosewall won pro slams on grass, clay and indoors. Vines is the only player to win major titles on four surfaces in winning Wimbledon (grass), the U. S. (grass), the U. S. Pro (hard), the French Pro (clay) and the British Pro (indoors) and he also won the World Championship Series five times.

The tables below show players that have won major singles titles on three or more surfaces, followed by the leading winners on each surface. Before 1978 the Grand Slams were held on grass and clay and from 1978 onwards they have been held on grass, clay and hard. The British Pro was held indoors throughout (1934-1967). The French Pro was held on clay from 1933-1962 and indoors from 1963-1967. The U. S. Pro was held on grass 1931, 1942, 1946-1949, 1951 & 1963-1967, on clay 1932, 1934-1935, 1940-1941, 1950 & 1952-1953, on hard 1939 and indoors 1938 & 1954-1961 (excludes events not classed as pro slams). Anyone that was pro champion had to win on different surfaces, though determining exactly what surfaces they played on to win the World Championship Series is impossible. Detailed records do not survive and some surfaces would not fall into a conventional category. Therefore Bill Tilden, Bobby Riggs and Jack Kramer also won titles on three or more surfaces.


MEN THAT WON MAJOR TITLES ON THREE OR MORE DIFFERENT SURFACES
AUS= Australian, FRE= French, WIM= Wimbledon, US= U. S., FRP= French Pro, BRP= British Pro, USP= U. S. Pro. Pro champion titles not included. Ind. = indoors.
1. H. E. Vines (8) 4 surfaces
grass 3 (WIM 1, US 2), ind. 3 (BRP 3), clay 1 (FRP 1), hard 1 (USP 1)
2. K. Rosewall (23) 3 surfaces ind. 9 (BRP 5, FRP 4), grass 8 (AUS 4, US 2, USP 2), clay 6 (FRP 4, FRE 2)
3. R. Laver (19) 3 surfaces grass 12 (WIM 4, AUS 3, USP 3, US 2), ind. 5 (BRP 4, FRP 1), clay 2 (FRE 2)
3. R. Federer (19) 3 surfaces hard 10 (US 5, AUS 5), grass 8 (WIM 8), clay 1 (FRE 1)
5. R. Nadal (16) 3 surfaces clay 10 (FRE 10), grass 2 (WIM 2), hard 3 (US 3, AUS 1)
6. P. Gonzales (14) 3 surfaces ind. 11 (USP 7, BRP 4), grass 2 (US 2), clay 1 (USP 1)
7. N. Djokovic (12) 3 surfaces hard 8 (AUS 6, US 2), grass 3 (WIM 3), clay 1 (FRE 1)
8. J. D. Budge (10) 3 surfaces grass 6 (WIM 2, US 2, AUS 1, USP 1), clay 3 (FRE 1, FRP 1, USP 1), ind. 1 (BRP 1)
8. F. Perry (10) 3 surfaces grass 7 (WIM 3, US 3, AUS 1), clay 2 (FRE 1, USP 1), ind. 1 (USP 1)
10. A. Agassi (8) 3 surfaces hard 6 (AUS 4, US 2), clay 1 (FRE 1), grass 1 (WIM 1)
10. J. Connors (8) 3 surfaces grass 4 (WIM 2, AUS 1, US 1), hard 3 (US 3), clay 1 (US 1)
12. M. Wilander (7) 3 surfaces clay 3 (FRE 3), grass 2 (AUS 2), hard 2 (AUS 1, US 1)

WOMEN THAT WON MAJOR TITLES ON THREE DIFFERENT SURFACES
AUS= Australian, FRE= French, WIM= Wimbledon, US= U. S.
1. S. Williams (23) 3 surfaces
hard 13 (AUS 7, US 6), grass 7 (WIM 7), clay 3 (FRE 3)
2. S. Graf (22) 3 surfaces hard 9 (US 5, AUS 4), grass 7 (WIM 7), clay 6 (FRE 6)
3. C. Evert-Lloyd (18) 3 surfaces clay 10 (FRE 7, US 3), grass 5 (WIM 3, AUS 2), hard 3 (US 3)
3. M. Navratilova (18) 3 surfaces grass 12 (WIM 9, AUS 3), hard 4 (US 4), clay 2 (FRE 2)
5. M. Sharapova (5) 3 surfaces hard 2 (AUS 1, US 1), clay 2 (FRE 2), grass 1 (WIM 1)



TOP MEN'S SINGLES MAJOR TITLES ON EACH SURFACE

Grass Leaderboard (Minimum qualification 6 titles)
Rod Laver 12
Bill Tilden 11 (10 won playing through the draw)
Roy Emerson 10
Roger Federer 8
Ken Rosewall 8
John Newcombe 7
Fred Perry 7
Pete Sampras 7
Dick Sears 7 (3 won playing through the draw)
Bill Larned 7 (2 won playing through the draw)
William Renshaw 7 (2 won playing through the draw)
J. Donald Budge 6
Bobby Riggs 6
Anthony Wilding 6 (3 won playing through the draw)
H. Laurie Doherty 6 (2 won playing through the draw)

Clay Leaderboard (Minimum qualification 3 titles)
Rafael Nadal 10
Bjorn Borg 6
Henri Cochet 6
Ken Rosewall 6
Bill Tilden 4
Tony Trabert 4
J. Donald Budge 3
Gustavo Kuerten 3
J. Rene Lacoste 3
Ivan Lendl 3
Hans Nusslein 3
Mats Wilander 3

Hard Leaderboard (Minimum qualification 3 titles)
Roger Federer 10
Novak Djokovic 8
Pete Sampras 7
Andre Agassi 6
Ivan Lendl 5
John McEnroe 4
Rafael Nadal 4
Boris Becker 3
Jimmy Connors 3

Indoors Leaderboard (Minimum qualification 3 titles)
Pancho Gonzales 11
Ken Rosewall 9
Rod Laver 5
H. Ellsworth Vines 3

TOP WOMEN'S SINGLES MAJOR TITLES ON EACH SURFACE

Grass Leaderboard (Minimum qualification 6 titles)

Margaret Smith Court 19
Helen Wills Moody 15
Martina Navratilova 12
Billie-Jean Moffitt King 11
Molla Bjurstedt Mallory 8 (6 won playing through the draw)
Maria Bueno 7
Maureen Connolly 7
Steffi Graf 7
Serena Williams 7
Dorothea Douglass Lambert Chambers 7 (4 won playing through the draw)
A. Louise Brough 6
Evonne Goolagong Cawley 6
Nancye Wynne Bolton 6
Blanche Bingley Hillyard 6 (5 won playing through the draw)
Suzanne Lenglen 6 (4 won playing through the draw)

Clay Leaderboard (Minimum qualification 3 titles)
Chris Evert Lloyd 10
Steffi Graf 6
Suzanne Lenglen 6
Margaret Smith Court 5
Justine Henin Hardenne 4
Helen Wills Moody 4
Arantxa Sanchez Vicario 3
Monica Seles 3
Hilde Krahwinkel Sperling 3
Serena Williams 3

Hard Leaderboard (Minimum qualification 3 titles)
Serena Williams 13
Steffi Graf 9
Monica Seles 6
Kim Clijsters 4
Martina Hingis 4
Martina Navratilova 4
Chris Evert Lloyd 3
Justine Henin Hardenne 3


This page treats World Hard Court as a Grand Slam.

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